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The alkaline earth metals have higher melting and boiling point as compared to those of alkali metals . Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals Down the column, nuclear charge increases and a new orbital is added to each alkaline earth atom. Chemical Properties of Alkali Metals. To find potential alkaline-earth metal-doped aromatic superconductors and clarify the origin of superconductivity in metal-doped phenanthrene (PHN) systems, we have systematically investigated the crystal and electronic structures of bivalent metal (Mg, Ca, … The tendency to form ionic compounds increases down the group because ionization enthalpy decreases. Alkaline earth metals have less electropositive or metallic character as compared to alkali metals. It is this greater lattice enthalpy of M2+ ions  which more than compensates for the higher second ionization enthalpy thereby making M2+ ions more stable than M+ ions. The values of the first ionization enthalpy of elements of Group 2 are greater than those of the elements of group 1 because the atoms of alkaline earth metals have smaller size and higher nuclear charge than those of alkali metals. Alkaline-earth metal - Alkaline-earth metal - Physical and chemical behaviour: The alkaline-earth elements are highly metallic and are good conductors of electricity. As with the alkali metals, the properties depend on the ease with which electrons are lost. The densities of alkaline earth metal do not show any regular trend with increasing atomic number. In their pure state, all of these elements tend to have a shiny, metallic appearance. All the metals in the periodic tables are classified into three groups, namely; alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and transition metals. Group 2: the alkaline earth metals Physical Properties Metals Halides, oxides, hydroxides, salts of oxoacids Complex ions in aqueous solution Complexes with … Different alkali metals While most of the alkali metals are silver in colour caesium actually has a gold tint Francium is the only radioactive alkali metal All alkali metals have a … Unlike other metals, the elements of the alkali metal group are soft substances and can be cut with a knife. However, since these electrons are in the s orbital as an electron pair, these elements are not that much reactive. Alkali metals group [Group 1A] Alkali metals group is located on the maximum left side of the modern periodic table.It is the first group of s-block, Despite the presence of hydrogen at the top of the group (1A), It is not one of the alkali metals but it is one of the nonmetals because it has a small atomic size and it is a gas.. General properties of alkali metals They are fairly reactive under standard conditions. Thus, these elements show strong electropositive or metallic character. They are silvery, white, and hard metals. They have a gray-white lustre when freshly cut but tarnish readily in air, particularly the heavier members of the group. On moving down the group, ionization enthalpy values go on decreasing because of the increase in atomic size due to addition of the new shells and screening effect of the electrons in the inner shell which overweigh the effect of increased nuclear charge. Alkaline earth metal prefer to form divalent ions rather than monovalent ions. The main difference between alkali metals and alkaline earth metals is that alkali metals have one valence electron in the outermost orbit whereas alkaline earth metals have two valence electrons in the outermost orbit. (3) The existence of divalent ions in the aqueous solution is due to greater enthalpy of hydration of the divalent ions which counterbalance the higher value of second ionization enthalpy. The alkaline earths possess many of the characteristic properties of metals. when they return to their ground state, The absorbed energy is emitted in form of visible light of a particular wavelength. Reason: They form ionic compounds because they have low ionization enthalpies. Since the atoms of the alkaline earth metals have smaller size and higher ionization enthalpies as compared to corresponding alkali metals, their tendency to lose valence electrons is lesser than those of alkali metals. Reason:  The second electron in case of alkali metal is to be removed from a cation which has already acquired the stable noble gas configuration whereas in case of alkaline earth metal, the second electron is to be removed from a cation which is yet to acquire the stable noble gas configuration. Missed the LibreFest? Reason: The low ionisation enthalpies of the alkaline earth metals is because of their strong tendency to lose electrons due to their smaller nuclear charge and comparatively larger atomic size which results in weaker forces of attraction between the valence electrons and the nucleus. Their compounds are less ionic because their ionization enthalpies are higher than those of the corresponding alkali metals. Be, (2) The existence of divalent ions in the solid state is due to the reason that divalent cations due to smaller size and higher charge form stronger lattices then monovalent cations. The hydration enthalpies of alkaline earth metal ions decreases as the size of the metal ion increases down the group i.e. Loading image • • • Trends in Physical properties: Trends in Physical Properties. Alkaline earth metal prefer to form divalent ions rather than monovalent ions Alkaline earth metals share many similar properties including: They are silvery, shiny, and relatively soft metals. Some physical properties and their trends is given in table: Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals. The second ionization enthalpies of the elements of group 1 are higher than those of elements of group 2. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Their melting and boiling points are higher compared to alkali metals. Atomic and Ionic Radii It also occurs to about 0.13% in sea water as chloride and sulphate. On moving down the group, the atomic and ionic radii increases due to addition of an extra shell of electrons in each succeeding element and the increasing screening effect. Other important minerals of calcium are fluorite or fluorspar CaF2, gypsum CaSO4.2 H2O and anhydrite CaSO4. Alkaline earth metals in their pure forms are generally shiny and silvery. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Together with hydrogen they constitute group 1, which lies in the s-block of the periodic table. So they do not impart colour to the flame. Down the group , there is no regular trend in their melting and boiling point. She has started this educational website with the mindset of spreading Free Education to everyone. The alkaline earth metals have fairly low ionization enthalpies though greater than those of the corresponding elements of group 1 and these decreases down the group. The alkali metals: are soft (they can be cut with a knife) have relatively low melting points Be2+ > Mg2+ >Ca2+ > Sr2+ > Ba2+. Because of this reason ,these metals are less soft then alkali metals. Reason: The alkaline earth metals have a higher nuclear charge ,and ,therefore the electrons are attracted more strongly towards the nucleus. Alkali metals are softer when compared to alkaline earth metals. 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