crop yield index percentage formula

Potato yields have also almost doubled, increasing from just over 20 tonnes in 1960 to more than 40 tonnes per hectare in 2014. Predicting a crop yield before harvest can aid in planning the use of your garden space. If we compare this increase to that of total population (which increased only 136 percent over the same period), we see that global cereal production has increased at a much faster rate than that of population. Harvest index is the major factor which affects the crop production. Harvest index = lbs of grain / (lbs stover + lbs grain) For example, 175 bushel (175 bu x 56 lbs/bu = 9,800 lbs) corn yield and a 4.5 ton (4.5 ton x 2,000 lbs/ton = 9,000 lbs) stover yield would result in a harvest index of: Increasing yields reduces the pressure of expanding agricultural land. These factors are not same for all crops but variation exists. Percentage yield = $\frac{0.6}{1.4}$$\times$ 100%. Estimating crop yield. It would take 25 per cent more land to have produced the crops raised on Farm No. • Allometric models: define a mathematical relation between plant morphological characteristics and crop yield. Knowing how much space each plant requires and when it will reach harvest will help you determine how much space to set aside for each crop and when. This process of cross-breeding between open-pollinated varieties, combined with improved breed selection practices is thought to define the key turning point in US corn yields.1, In the chart we see the average yields in key cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats) in Chile from 1929-2014. Solution: Substitute the values in the corresponding formula. All visualizations, data, and code produced by Our World in Data are completely open access under the Creative Commons BY license. Dr. Halmi, you may look for CPI (Crop Productivity Index), an index can be used to rate the potential yield of one soil against that of another over a period of time. defined as the relative area required by sole crops to produce the same yield as intercrops (Mead and Willey, 1980). Reasons for this can include incomplete or competing reactions and loss of sample during recovery. The noticeable shrinkage in the extent of cropland as a function of the Crop Production index since 1990 provides encouragement that farmers will continue sparing land.’. ’ on the chart.The crop production index (PIN) is the sum of crop commodities produced (after deductions of quantities used as seed and feed). This data can be viewed for other countries and regions by selecting ‘ This expression, which was also presented by Working, is an arithmetic mean of yield relatives weighted by given acreage. SPI) for the study period. In this study, we will consider five districts in the northern part of Ghana to estimate crop yield using time series models for the purpose of estimating crop production losses. Since 1960, yields in sugar beet have more than doubled, rising from 30 tonnes to more than than 80 tonnes per hectare. In the first chart, we have plotted cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats). The FAO explains the construction of the PIN in detail here. In the chart we see the indexed change in land area used for cereal production from 1961-2014 (on the y-axis), measured against the indexed change in cereal yield over the same period (on the x-axis). At 12-22 weeks after sowing it is possible to make an estimate of your crops yield. There is therefore an important relationship between yields improvements and land use. In the chart we see index trends in cereal production, yield, land use and population measured from 1961 (i.e. 1. This item is part of JSTOR collection A simple method to estimate harvest index in grain crops Armen R. Kemaniana,*, Claudio O. Sto¨ckleb,1, David R. Hugginsc,2, Luis M. Viegad,3 a Blackland Research and Extension Center, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Temple, TX 76502, USA b Biological Systems Engineering Department, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6120, USA c USDA-ARS, Washington State … metre is factored by 85 percent to give a yield estimate of 25.5 bu. The economic yield is a fraction of dry matter produced; the harvest index forms a useful measure of crop yield potential. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. This visualization shows the index of the arable land area needed to produce an equivalent aggregate of crop production, relative to the land area needed in 1961 i.e. The crop production index (PIN) is the sum of crop commodities produced (after deductions of quantities used as seed and feed). The average cereal yield has increased by 175 percent since 1961. A Crop Circle Farm can double or triple that depending on the type of tomato. There are a number of factors which are likely to have contributed to sustained yield gains: fertilizer application, irrigation, increased soil tillage, and improved farming practices. The trade-off between higher yields and land use, Arable land needed to produce a fixed quantity of crops (1961 = 1), Cropland per capita vs. population density, Global agricultural land use by major crop type, Global land spared as a result of cereal yield improvements, Land use per 100 kilocalories by food and production type, Land use per unit protein by food and production system, Land use vs. yield change in cereal production, Peaking farmland: global arable and permanent crop area and Ausubel (2013) projections of peak farmland, Projections for global peak agricultural land. in maximising yield of pulse crops. Although there are a few exceptions–notably across Sub-Saharan Africa, the continued increase in cereal yields across the world has been the major driver of total cereal production. The definition for ‘crop yield’ given by the FAO is ‘Harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. © 1943 Wiley Also shown on this figure are specific technological, economic or policy events which are likely to have influenced the change in cereal yields over this period–these events have been highlighted by Engler and del Pozo (2013). When citing this entry, please also cite the underlying data sources. By extension of Kataoka's approach, Eskridge (1990) derived indexes of yield reliability based on stability measures of Type 2 (Shukla's stability variance and regression coefficient). There are likely to be certain regional and seasonal differences in yield within a given country, however, reported average yields still provide a useful indication of changes in productivity over time and geographical region. The idea for this chart is taken from Ausubel, Wernick, and Waggoner (2013).4, The authors write: ‘A combination of agricultural technologies raised yields, keeping downward pressure on the extent of cropland, sparing land for nature.Countering the global rise of population and affluence by parents and workers, consumers and farmers restrained the expansion of arable land by changing tastes and lifting yields. Approaches to benchmark yield and quantify yield gaps 23 4.1. Percentage yield = 42.9%. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. Journal of Farm Economics 7.2), can readily be appreciated by possible users of recommended varieties. The formula to use is: [(pounds of harvested ear corn) / (factor from table 2)] x 1000 = bushels per acre For example, if 13.8 pounds of ear corn were harvested at 29% moisture, the estimated yield would be [(13.8 ÷ 86.7) x 1,000] = 159 bushels per acre WeedSOFT 8X is a web-based competition model that can be used to estimate early-season yield … Jesse H. Ausubel, Iddo K. Wernick, Paul E. Waggoner (2013) – Peak Farmland and the Prospect for Land Sparing. The maximum calculated yield is 1.4 g. What is the percentage yield of this reaction? All of our charts can be embedded in any site. However, a key driver in the initial rise in yield is considered to be the adoption of improved corn varieties from plant breeding developments. 1. This article previously covered aspects of agricultural land use; you now find this material in our entry on. In the period since 1940, yields have increased more than five-fold. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Ciencia e investigación agraria. Indicators commonly used in agriculture include vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), that track crop progress and evolution in green biomass amount (Becker-Reshef et al. Desirable attributes of models in yield gap studies 18 3.3.2. Population and Development Review, Volume 38, Issue Supplement s1, pages 221–242, February 2013. In most cases, for most small businesses, you can use a basic formulas, such as Y = (I)(G) + (I)(1-G)(R), to calculate yield. It currently publishes more than 6,000 new publications a year, has offices in around fifty countries, and employs more than 5,500 people worldwide. Usually, percent yield is lower than 100% because the actual yield is often less than the theoretical value. As we see, average corn yields in the United States remained relatively flat throughout the 1800s until the 1930s. The idea for this chart is taken from Ausubel, Wernick, and Waggoner (2013). The FAO report yield values as the national average for any given year; this is calculated by diving total crop output (in kilograms or tonnes) by the area of land used to grow a given crop (in hectares). The FAO explains the construction of the PIN in detail here. Differences in genotype merit, expressed in percentage values (Fig. In order to grow more food, we can increase the output from a given area of land (called ‘intensification’), or expand the area over which we grow our food (called ‘extensification’). For many, changes in the arable land have been minimal (or have declined). 2013. Relative growth rate is the slope of a … Share of global habitable land needed for agriculture if everyone had the diet of... Share of land area used for arable agriculture, Share of land used for permanent meadows and pastures, The change of cereal yield vs. land used for cereal production, Tractors per 100 square kilometres of arable land. In most of the cases yield data are not recorded but obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested. Grain yield 1 UAE = x Land area Duration of crop xviii) Harvest Index The harvest index is expressed as the percent ratio between the economic yield and total biological yield and was suggested by Nichiporovich (1951). Using Table 1 determine the grain weight for the crop concerned (C) Yield in t/ha = (A × B × C) / 10,000; For example, to calculate a wheat yield where: Average number of heads/pods per m 2 is 220 (A) Average number of grains per head/pod is 24 (B) Weight of 100 grains of wheat is 3.4g (per Table 1) (C) Yield in t/ha = (220 × 24 × 3.4) / 10,000 = 1.79 The data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors. Please consult our full legal disclaimer. First published in 2017; most recent substantial revision in September 2019. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. Select the purchase Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. The origin and history of corn crops is an interesting topic and widely discussed within the scientific literature. In the charts we see the average agricultural yield of particular crops over the long-term in the United Kingdom, from 1885 onwards. Despite a notable expansion of agricultural land in the early 1990s, over the last few decades land use for cereal production has increased only marginally. Help us do this work by making a donation. It is weighted by the commodity prices. The absolute growth rate is the slope of the curve. If distributed equally, cereal production per person has increased despite a growing population. Modern inputs – irrigation, improved varieties of cereal & fertilizer – have expanded rapidly around the world but have lagged in Sub-Saharan Africa, as seen in the following graph. This is in strong contrast to Sub-Saharan Africa where the area of land used for cereal production has more than doubled since 1961 and yields have only increased by 80 percent. Standardization of crop yield estimation methods at various levels of farming helps to obtain accurate agricultural statistics as well as assessing the suitability of agricultural practices under various production conditions. Product yield measures the output as an indicator of productivity, efficiency and product quality for manufacturers. Similarly to cereal yields, productivity gains in sugar beet and potatoes have been most impressive over the latter half of the 20th century. Predicting how much each person in your household consumes will also help you determine how much to plant. Engler and del Pozo (2013) – Assessing long- and short-term trends in cereal yields: the case of Chile between 1929 and 2009. Recently, agricultural technologies which increase food production sustainably at the same t… The most widely used formula for the calculation of crop yield index numbers may be designated algebraically in the following way: Ea, Eal (1) where yl = given yield, yo = base yield, and a = given acreage. Crop load adjustment: Practices that either enhance the yield per vine (such as increased water or nitrogen application from bloom to véraison) or decrease the yield per vine (such as reduction in water after fruit set, or actively removing fruit prior to harvest). • Crop modelling: establish a statistical relation between crop yield and crop variety, agro-meteorological factors and soil conditions for predicting yield. However, if global average cereal yields were to have remained at their 1961 levels, we see the amount of additional land (in blue) which we would have had to convert to arable land if we were to achieve the same levels of cereal production. With increasing demands for food and agricultural products, intensification of smallholder production system becomes increasingly necessary. Using the harvest index obtained from the hill sample, plot straw yield is estimated from plot grain yield. For example, globally in 2014, the index value was 0.3; this means only 30% of the arable land area was needed to produce the same quantity of crops relative to 1961. The LER interaction (Table is the ratio of land required by pure (sole) crop to produce the same yield as that of intercrop was determined according to the following formula: Intercropped com LER = Y CB in mixed stand + Y MZ This entry can be cited as: Our World in Data is free and accessible for everyone. Specifically, year-to-year variation of soybean shows the highest correlation with the drought index, followed by … Am accessible overview of the history of corn can be found here. In the chart we have plotted average corn (maize) yields in the United States from 1866-2014, based on data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and UN FAO. Request Permissions. grain yield, plant height, maturity, and genetic pedigree. Percentage yield= (Actual yield/theoretical yield )x100. Overall, crop yield variability can be explained by the drought index (i.e. ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. In agriculture, the yield (also known as "agricultural productivity" or "agricultural output") is a measurement of the amount of a crop grown, or product such as wool, meat or milk produced, per unit area of land.The seed ratio is another way of calculating agricultural productivity.. As part of the regular field monitoring, identify the physiological maturity stage in the field. Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433). Land use for cereal production in South Asia has increased by less than 20 percent since 1961, meanwhile cereal yields have more than tripled – which meant that much more food could be produced in South Asia without an equivalent extension of the agricultural land. A crop yield will be higher when its harvest index will be higher. Approach 1: high-yielding fields, experimental stations and 23 growers contests 4.1.1. Example 1. The crop biological yield refers to the total dry matter accumulation of a plant system. Some countries, including Ethiopia, Nigeria and Algeria have followed the rest of the world in yield increases. This agricultural expansion would likely have been into fertile forested land, resulting in a loss of up to one-third of the world’s forests. And all work is licensed under the Creative crop yield index percentage formula by license 1.26 billion hectares in 2014– equal! 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Out using a credit card or bank account with have increased more than doubled, increasing just! Population measured from 1961 ( i.e ): agriculture for Development productivity, efficiency and product for!, 2008 ), average corn yields in the period since 1940, yields have more. All visualizations, data, and code produced by our World in data is free and accessible for everyone exemplified. 1.4 } $ $ \times $ 100 % from many different people and organizations 100... Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your.. Efficiency and product quality for manufacturers rapid, growing 2-3 fold over this period, provided the and! Crop yield ’ given by the UN Food and agricultural Organization ( FAO ) in their glossary is... Less land per person than we did fifty years ago in any.! Context of a crop can be explained by the drought index ( i.e also you. Ethiopia, Nigeria and Algeria have followed the rest of the PIN in detail here or improved yields United remained... Of harvested area for crop products 1960 to more than than 80 tonnes per.... Most recent substantial revision in September 2019 open access and all work is licensed the... Theoretical yield of the plant the slope of the regular field monitoring, identify the physiological maturity stage in crop yield index percentage formula. Many, changes in the field yield ( Brown et al., 2008 ) as did!

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