john vi palaiologos
 The 1570 will of Demetri Paleologo, a son of Theodore, begins with "Io Demetri Palleollogo, da Constantinopoli ...".  As such, it is possible that Allatius had access to earlier documents, now lost, which would have proven the legitimacy of the Pesaro line. They had an unnamed son, who died shortly after birth in 1321. Although Andronikos III was ultimately victorious and Andronikos II was deposed, the empire was damaged economically and for the first time, foreign states such as Bulgaria and Serbia had appeared as significant regulating factors in imperial dynastic disputes (joining opposite sides of the civil war). He was denied the traditional funeral pomps of an Orthodox Emperor. In 1320, Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos attempted to disinherit his grandson Andronikos III Palaiologos, despite the death of Andronikos II's son, heir and co-emperor Michael IX Palaiologos (Andronikos III's father). A 1455 document in which Cardinal Isidoro Ruteno grants indulgences to those who donate to a church in San Mauro Cilento mentions a "Ruggerio" as the son of "Tommaso Paleologo". Advances in science and the arts, referred to as the Palaiologan Renaissance, lasted throughout the dynasty's rule, encouraged by the efforts of some emperors such as Andronikos II and Manuel II. There, they faced a dilemma.  When the despotate fell to the Ottomans in 1479, Leonardo and his family escaped to Italy, where he continued to be recognized as the titular Despot of Epirus. On the death of the emperor in 1341, John Kantakouzenos was left as the designated regent, and guardian of John's son John V Palaiologos, who was nine years old. Omissions?  Following his exile, Theodore established himself as an assassin and appears to have garnered an impressive reputation.  With the sole exception of Thomas's purported son John, the existence of the rest of Theodore's immediate ancestors can be verified through records at Pesaro. John VII Palaiologos was the son of Emperor Andronikos IV Palaiologos and Keratsa of Bulgaria, a daughter of Emperor Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria and Theodora of Wallachia. Even in this state, the empire, famous for its frequent civil wars, was unable to stay united. Just a few days after Theodore's death, Michael led a coup against the bureaucrat George Mouzalon, who had been appointed regent by Theodore II. , Thomas's older brother Theodore II, who preceded him (and co-ruled with him for a time) as Despot of the Morea, had a daughter, Helena, who married King John II of Cyprus. From 1328 to 1341 Cantacuzenus directed both domestic and foreign policy for the Emperor. John V married Helena Kantakouzene, daughter of his co-emperor John VI Kantakouzenos and Irene Asanina, on 28 May 1347. The weakening of Byzantium as a result of the civil war allowed Stefan Dušan of Serbia to invade Macedonia, Thessaly and Epirus in 1346–1348, creating the Serbian Empire. Andreas Palaeologus in Rome, 1465-1502", "El fin de Constantinopla y las supuestas herencias nobiliarias bizantinas", "Su alcune discendenze moderne dei Paleologi di Bisanzio", "The Palaiologos Family After 1453: The Destiny of an Imperial Family", Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologenzeit, "Les premiers Paléologues. In 1495, Theodore partook in a siege of Novara and also partook in later battles in Savona and Cephalonia.  On John IV's eleventh birthday, 25 December 1261, the boy was deposed, blinded and confined to a monastery. After a failed rebellion in 1373, … Irene Palaiologina (c. 1349 – after 1362), who married her first cousin Khalil of Bithynia. The situation was so dire that Manuel left Constantinople to travel around Western Europe asking for further aid against the Ottomans, visiting Italy, France and England. Various lineages of Palaialogoi, whose relation to the medieval Palaiologoi and each other are unclear, survived into the modern period and thousands of people, particularly in Greece, still have the last name Palaiologos, or variants thereof, today. John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Ίωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) was a Byzantine emperor, who succeeded his father in 1341 at age eight. In the eyes of the Orthodox church, Constantine's death sanctified him and he died a hero. Some Western pretenders who wished to restore the Latin Empire, such as the King of Sicily, Charles of Anjou, periodically enjoyed Papal support, and several Popes considered the idea of calling for a new crusade against Constantinople to once more impose Catholic rule. In 1284, Michael's son and successor Andronikos II Palaiologos visited the blinded and then 33-year-old John IV during a journey in Anatolia, hoping to demonstrate his disapproval with his father's actions. When his father Andronikos IV usurped the throne from his father John V Palaiologos in 1376, John VII was associated as co-emperor the following year. One of the earliest references to Palaiologoi in Venice is a 1479 Senate decision concerning Theodore Palaiologos, who had recently proven himself in a campaign in Friuli. Additionally, they continued to style themselves as despots of Epirus until the 17th century, when they instead began to title themselves as princes of Achaea.  Granted the title of despotēs by his father, the future Manuel II traveled west to seek support for the Byzantine Empire in 1365 and in 1370, serving as governor in Thessalonica from 1369.  Carlo died in 1908 and his only child, his daughter Maria Maddalena, died in 1933.  Whether he had any children is uncertain. , In the aftermath of Constantinople's fall, one of the most pressing threats to the new Ottoman regime was the possibility that one of Constantine XI's relatives would secure support and return to reclaim the empire. The Byzantine civil wars, and the collapse of Stefan Dušan's Serbian Empire following his death in 1355, had allowed the Ottoman Turks to expand almost unopposed through the Balkans and in the second half of the 14th century, the empire passed almost without a fight under Ottoman sovereignty, forced to pay tribute and offer military aid if needed. By 1354 Cantacuzenus was anxious to continue his rule and crowned his son, Matthew, co-emperor. In the decades after 1453, Ottoman tax registers show a consortium of noble Greeks co-operating to bid for the lucrative tax farming district including Constantinople and the ports of western Anatolia. He succeeded his father as Byzantine Emperor in 1341, at age nine. Andreas attempted to sell his claims to various Byzantine titles to earn money, but since Manuel did not have any claims to sell (as he was the second son), he instead travelled around Europe hoping to enter into the service of some noble.  Theodore had a well-documented career as a stratiote. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. John was chief adviser to Andronicus III Palaeologus, having helped him gain the throne from his grandfather Andronicus II.  These modern Palaiologoi cannot be confidently proven to descend from the imperial dynasty, or the medieval family which produced it. …whom the leading light was John Cantacuzenus. , Theodore had married Maria, a daughter of a man by the name Demetrios Kantakouzenos. In 1472, according to Bessarion's plans, Zoe (whose name was later changed to Sophia) was married to Duke Ivan III of Moscow. Allatius was the keeper of the Vatican Library and would have had access to its vast collection of books and records and might have deduced his findings from there. The Montferrat cadet branch (descendants of Theodore, son of Emperor Andronikos II) is not shown. During Manuel II's reign, John VIII and the younger son Constantine appear to have got on well with each other, but the relations between Constantine and the younger brothers Demetrios and Thomas were not as friendly.  Theodore lived in England for the rest of his life and fathered six children, whose fates were caught up in the English Civil War of 1642–1651.  The change in title might be attributable to the family being the senior heirs of Thomas Palaiologos, whose wife had been the heiress of the last Prince of Achaea. يرجى إيراد مصادر موثوق بها.  In 1599, he entered into the service of Henry Clinton, the Earl of Lincoln, in England. , In modern scholarship, Rogerio's existence is overwhelmingly dismissed as fantasy. The origins of the family are unclear. , In 1578, the members of the family living in Pesaro were embroiled in a scandal as brothers Leonidas and Scipione Paleologus, and their nephew Theodore, were arrested for attempted murder.  To prevent aid coming from the Morea, now governed by Thomas and Demetrios, Mehmed II sent one of his generals, Turahan Bey (who had raided the Morea twice before) to devastate the peninsula. Venetian documents frequently refer to their "strenuous" prowess in service to the Venetian Republic.  It would be difficult to explain why Allatius, a respected scholar, would simply make up a member of an ancient dynasty.  Despite Michael VIII's efforts, the union was disrupted in 1281, after just seven years, when he was excommunicated by Pope Martin IV. Supposedly, he is to have stayed in Casalsottano, a hamlet of the Italian comune San Mauro Cilento, in a 15th-century building commonly referred to as the Palazzo ("the palace"). However, it soon became apparent Constantine's closest relatives, his brothers in the Morea, represented little more than a nuisance to Mehmed II and they were thus allowed to keep their titles and lands as Ottoman vassals.  After a 53-day long siege, the city finally fell to the Ottomans on 29 May 1453. The Byzantine Empire had fallen and the rulers of the Morea, Thomas and Demetrios, appeared more interested in their own rivalry than in organizing resistance against the Ottomans. Nikephoros supported the revolt of Nikephoros III Botaneiates against Michael VII, but his son, George Palaiologos, married Anna Doukaina and thus supported the Doukas family and later Alexios I Komnenos, Anna's brother-in-law, against Botaneiates. John VII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος , Iōannēs Z' Palaiologos; 1370 – 22 September 1408) was Byzantine Emperor for five months in 1390.